Cervicothoracic Joint

Lower cervical spine and upper thoracic spine injuries are relatively common in motor vehicle crashes where the occupant survives, whereas upper cervical spine injuries have a higher likelihood of being fatal. Most anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) possess both an upper neck and lower neck load cell to measure the risk of neck injury in crash simulations. Upper neck loads in post-mortem human surrogate (PMHS) testing are relatively easy to calculate using the inertial properties and kinematics of the head. However, because the cervical spine/neck is a deformable structure this method does not apply to lower neck loads. One objective of this project is to investigate methods of determining lower neck loads in frontal, side and rear PMHS tests in comparison to lower neck force data found in ATD tests.

Additionally, head and neck responses of ATDs and computational human body models should be evaluated in different impact modes, e.g., frontal, oblique, side, and twist, since three-dimensional head and neck motions are recorded even in unidirectional laboratory, sled, and crash tests.  A second objective of this study is to create biomechanical responses of the head and lower neck of PMHS in various impact directions.

More information:

PMHS Lower Neck Load Calculation using Inverse Dynamics with Cervical Spine Kinematics and Neck  Mass Properties

Yun-Seok Kang, Jason Stammen, Kevin Moorhouse, Rodney Herriott, John H. Bolte IV

International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, at Malaga, Spain (2016).

Cervical Spine Injury in Rear Impacts

It is important to understand the biomechanical human response in realistic test conditions.  Once an understanding of the human response in rear impacts is obtained, the corresponding biofidelity of the rear impact ATDs can be assessed.  No previous studies have evaluated responses of both PMHS and existing rear impact ATDs under identical test conditions at moderate-speeds in production seats.  The objective of this study is to evaluate biofidelity of existing rear impact ATDs (e.g. BioRID II) in moderate-speed rear impact sled test conditions by quantitatively comparing the ATD responses to biomechanical response targets developed from PMHS testing.  The identical sled test conditions which the ATDs and PMHS were each subjected to utilize an experimental seat system capable of representing the seat back rotation response of a typical production seat.

Recent Publications & Presentations

Rear Impact Head and Cervical Spine Kinematics of BioRID II and PMHS in Production Seats

Yun-Seok Kang, Kevin Moorhouse, Kyle Icke, Jim Stricklin, Rodney Herriott, John H. Bolte IV

International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury,  at Lyon, France (2015).

Head and Cervical Spine Responses of Post Mortem Human Subjects in Moderate Speed Rear Impacts

Yun-Seok Kang, Kevin Moorhouse, Kyle Icke, Rodney Herriott, John H. Bolte IV

International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, at Berlin, Germany (2014).

Biomechanical Responses of PMHS in Moderate-Speed Rear Impacts and Development of Response Targets for Evaluating the Internal and External Biofidelity of ATDs

Yun-Seok Kang, John H. Bolte IV, Kevin Moorhouse, Bruce Donnelly, Rodney Herriott, Ann E. Mallory

Stapp Car Crash Journal (October 2012).

Comparison of Cervical Vertebrae Rotations for PMHS and BioRID II in Rear Impacts

Yun-Seok Kang, Kevin Moorhouse, Rodney Herriott, John H Bolte IV

Traffic Injury Prevention (November 2013).