The FaroArm® is a portable coordinate measurement machine (PCMM) that can achieve sub-millimeter 3D measurement of points on test subjects and test fixtures. Digitization of test subjects and fixtures to be imported into finite element models is also made possible with the FaroArm laser scanner.
The IBRC employs 3D printers to design and rapid prototype custom components for testing fixtures and equipment, and print models and replicas of human specimens for visualization and trial tests. Between the two printers, high-resolution models ranging in height from a few millimeters to just under two feet can be produced.
The IBRC employs the use of several computer-aided engineering (CAE) softwares across multiple research projects. Finite-element analysis and multibody dynamics are the most common types of CAE used on IBRC research projects. LS-DYNA and MSC Adams are two of the IBRC's most commonly utilized software packages.
Faculty, staff, and students of the IBRC have access to mathematical software, such as MATLAB, capable of modeling, analyzing and, calculating symbolic or numerical data. Statistical analysis software, including SAS and JMP, is also available to individuals working in the IBRC. These software packages are made accessible through the Ohio State University site licenses.
Researchers in the IBRC use Solidworks CAD software to design and prototype parts for test fixtures and full fixture assemblies. The IBRC also has a license for Mimics, which allows users to create 3D models of bones from CT scans of real subjects that can be imported into CAD or CAE software or 3D printed.
Data Acquisition Systems
Due to the complex nature of PMHS testing, multiple data acquisition systems are available for use in the IBRC. All systems employed by the IBRC are desktop or on-board applications.
- DTS TDAS G5 - 32 channels
- DTS Slice Pro (Automotive) - 54 channels
- DTS Slice Pro (High rate) - 126 channels
The IBRC has over 300 sensors in its inventory, most of which are piezo-electric accelerometers, micro-electromechanical (MEMS) angular rate sensors, 6DX PRO (six degrees of freedom package), pressure transducers, single and multiaxial strain gage load cells, and potentiometers (string, linear, and rotary).
High Speed Video Cameras
The IBRC employs two Phantom high-speed cameras (VEO and MIRO) that can be used with any testing scenario. The VEO camera is capable of obtaining frame rates of 7000 fps at a maximum resolution of 1280 x 800 pixels. The MIRO camera can reach frame rates over 1000 fps with a resolution of 1920 x 1080 pixels.
Motion Capture System
The IBRC’s 16-camera Vantage Motion Capture system (VICON Motion Systems) collects kinematic data of test subjects and fixtures with sampling rates up to 1000Hz. Retro-reflective markers (9.5 and 14 mm) are easily applied to any fixture or specimen by utilizing customized 3D-printed bases. This system is capable of tracking the retro-reflective targets with an accuracy of ± 1 mm or less.
The IBRC, specifically the SBRL, is one of only a few laboratories that has the capabilities and resources to perform hard tissue histology. Hard tissue histology (preparation and analysis of undecalcified bone) is utilized for research purposes and for forensic consultation for outside agencies.
Three Olympus microscopes are dedicated to the histological analysis of human bone. The VS120 Virtual Slide Microscope allows for scanning, imaging, and analyzing histological slides. The VS120 has both brightfield and linear polarized lighting capabilities and is equipped with four objective magnification options (2x, 4x, 10x, 20x). The BX63 Upright Microscope and the BX43 Trinocular Brightfield Microscope, both equipped with Olympus DP73 microscope digital cameras, are designed to observe and capture magnified images of bone specimens in both routine work and research applications. The BX63 has six observation methods (phase contrast, fluorescence [blue/green excitations], fluorescence [ultraviolet excitations], differential interference contrast, polarized light, brightfield, and darkfield) and is equipped with five objectives (1.25x, 4x, 10x, 20x, 40x). The BX63 features a motorized stage, providing extremely precise operation and the ability to allow the researcher to set and navigate to coordinates. The BX43 has a built-in transmitted Koehler illumination, providing both brightfield and linear polarized capabilities, and offers three objective magnification options (4x, 10x, 20x).
Precision Diamond Wire Saw
The diamond wire saw (Delware Diamond Knives, Inc.) is the optimal saw for cutting sections of embedded bone specimen. The diamond wire saw allows for precise measurement of section thickness, minimal loss of material, and consistency in quality of sections, eliminating the need for grinding/polishing.
IsoMet™ 1000 Precision Saw
The IsoMet™ 1000 precision saw (Buehler) allows for operator control of speed, load, and blade size, which enables samples to be cut quickly, precisely, and with minimal deformation. Embedded and unembedded samples are cut to the desired thickness or shape in preparation for further processing.
EcoMet™ 250 Grinder-Polisher
The EcoMet™ 250 Grinder-Polisher (Buehler) is a variable speed grinder-polisher designed for manual grinding of specimens. It is utilized to grind both embedded and un-embedded specimens to a desired thickness for histological mounting and microscopic analysis.
The vacuum oven (Fisher Scientific) is a multipurpose unit that operates under reduced pressures and achieves temperature uniformity. It is most often utilized for conditioning and curing during the embedding process of human bone specimens.
This high precision balance from Ohaus offers accurate and repeatable results with applications including weighing, parts counting, percent weighing, dynamic weighing, density determination, and check weighing. The scale is often used to measure and calculate bone mineral composition of bone samples.
Digital X-Ray System
The digital x-ray system consists of a 5kW (110 kV/100mA) Portable X-Ray unit generator, a 35 x 43 cm Cesium Iodide (Csl) wireless AED digital image detector with 100 micron pixel size (15.36 Megapixels) and 35.5 x 43.2 cm active detector area with 3556 x 4320 matrix size. 5 LP/mm resolution. The system provides researchers with the ability to capture still images of subjects pre-, mid-, and post-test to determine instrumentation location during installation and the position of sensors relative to one another, and to identify fracture. The entire system is portable and is easily transported to other testing facilities/sites.
The GE Prodigy Primo scanner delivers reliable low-dose dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to determine bone mineral density (aBMD) results for the whole body, AP spine, dual femoral neck, and forearm, which provide researchers with a general idea of a subject’s bone quality.
Imaging Analysis Software
OsiriX is an image processing software, specifically for reading DICOM images obtained from CT or MRI equipment, used to a) identify instrumentation locations, b) calculate kinematic data based on relative locations of instrumentation, and c) screen subjects for testing and identify skeletal abnormalities that would go undetected in a visual inspection.
CellSens, a microscope imaging software, allows researchers in the SBRL to observe, measure, and create reports of high-resolution histological images. All of the microscope workstations (BX43, BX63, and VS120) utilized for histological analysis are equipped with cellSens Dimension software. CellSens Dimension is the most versatile of the cellSens software, featuring fully automated image acquisition and powerful analysis tools. The Life Science Applications toolbar offers evaluation methods for images through fluorescence unmixing, colocalization, deconvolution, and ratio analysis. Additionally, the Measurement and ROI toolbar allows users to count objects and measure segments and areas in the live mode.
Linear Pneumatic Impactor
The IBRC has access to a linear pneumatic impactor which has been used to test specimens from the individual component level, such as head and neck or tibia impacts, up to full body thoracic, abdomen, and shoulder impacts. The impactor has been used to test both PMHS and ATDs and is capable of obtaining speeds up to 10 m/s. A variety of ram shafts, components, and impactor faces are available to achieve desired impact energies and simulated impact surfaces.
Reverse Linear Impactor
The reverse linear impactor utilizes a pressurized nitrogen to propel a pneumatic piston, with a 4 inch bore and 10 inch stroke, rearward. This system has been used to simulate intrusion of a seatbelt into the abdomen of a subject (ATD/PMHS) in a controlled, dynamic scenario. In the case of an abdomen test, the piston connects to a T-bar mechanism, which features attachment points for a standard seatbelt.
A custom pendulum fixture allows researchers to test individual bone specimens, mainly ribs, in dynamic impact scenarios. When used for rib testing, the sternal end of the rib is pushed towards the vertebral end to create a 2D bending scenario, such as what is seen in a frontal impact to the thorax. The pendulum weights 54.4 kg is capable of reaching average velocities near 1 or 2 m/s.